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Current Projects

Can we increase the accuracy of students metacognitive judgements without a specific intervention? The goal of this study is to examine students’ prospective confidence judgements and judgements of learning in relation to actual performance in pharmacokinetics.

Can we stabilize previously learned, but not well recalled, knowledge without re-teaching the material? The goal of this research is at answering the questions whether we can stabilize marginal knowledge through retrieving and practicing information in areas that are not directly studied.

Previous Projects

What is better to teaching clinical not writing, worked examples or practice? The goal of this study was the examine if teaching clinical note writing was more successful if students first viewed a worked example followed either another worked example or a practice problem.

This study found that the worked example-practice paradigm led to better performance in clinical note writing and the ability to transfer those skills among different disease states.

What is the impact of spacing or massing homework problems in a classroom setting? The goal of this study is to examine the effects of various practice intervals on the learning and retention of pharmacokinetics. In collaboration with Beth Marsh and Allison Cantor (Duke University) & Andrew Butler (University of Texas).

This study did not find any statistical differences between spacing homework and massing homework. This could be a function of (1) to short of a retention interval; (2) many other practice opportunities; (3) use of active learning within the course.

Adding clinical pearls to a pharmacology lecture: how well does information transfer from foundational content to clinical application? The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness integrating clinical pearls of pharmacology and using classroom assessment to reinforce learning in a doctor of dentistry program. We will be testing how well students may transfer foundational knowledge to clinical application. In collaboration with Heidi Anksorus (Pharmacy), Jim Fiordalisi (Dentistry), Michael Wells (PharmD candidate), Kim Sanders (Pharmacy), Christine Downey (Dentistry)

The results will be published in the Journal of Dental Education. Major findings include: long term retention of material is higher when taught at the application level and teaching at the application level increases both knowledge and ability to apply information

Can a short course bridge prerequisite knowledge and knowledge needed to be successful in a PharmD curriculum? The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Pharmacy Bridging Course (PBC) which is designed to provide review of key foundational knowledge in five content areas and contextualize the material to the pharmacy and clinical context for incoming Doctor of Pharmacy students. In collaboration with Jacqui McLaughlin (PI), Wendy Cox, Bob Shrewsbury, Julia Khanova, and Nate Hathaway.

Accepted by American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Major findings: A 3 week bridging course allows students to get up to speed efficiently- bridging them to their pharmacy curriculum.

Does knowledge, self-regulation or personality cause students to use the entire given time period to complete an exam? The goal of this project is to examine factors (e.g., metacognitive ability, prior performance, personality traits) that predict how long it takes students to complete and turn in an examination. In collaboration with Hanna Mierzwa (PharmD candidate).

Accepted by American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Major finding: time to complete an examination is a function of metacognitive accuracy, current knowledge and the Agreeableness trait. The major contributors depend on if the student is slow, medium or fast in completing their assessment

Can we design reading material to make self-regulated learning more efficient in a flipped classroom model? The goal of this project is to translate factors of reading material (e.g., word count, readability score) to student study time in a flipped classroom model. In collaboration with Abby Hogg (PharmD candidate). Manuscript in preparation.

In press by the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Major finding: study time is about 3 to 5 times longer than reading time (as determined by word count) but students may only spend up to 3 hours of studying regardless of length or difficulty of topic.

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